The Science Behind Perfect Synergy®

SR CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine & Carnosine Human Clinical Study Highlights

The Science Behind
Perfect Synergy®

SR CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine & Carnosine Human Clinical Study Highlights

At Sustained RX®, we pride ourselves on promoting wellness based on the foundation of proven science.

Perfect Synergy®, our flagship Carnosine-boosting formula, hit the market in 2020, but the story behind the formula begins long before that date. Many years of rigorous clinical testing, and a tremendous financial investment in patenting the sustained release formulation have culminated in a formula designed with brain health as the core benefit. Multiple studies show improved memory and cognitive health, enhanced executive functioning, mental clarity, attention and task focus.

At Sustained RX®, we pride ourselves on promoting wellness based on the foundation of proven science. Perfect Synergy®, our flagship Carnosine-boosting formula, hit the market in 2020, but the story behind the formula begins long before that date. Many years of rigorous clinical testing, and a tremendous financial investment in patenting the sustained release formulation have culminated in a formula designed with brain health as the core benefit. Multiple studies show improved memory and cognitive health, enhanced executive functioning, mental clarity, attention and task focus.

Brain Health

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β‑Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers.

Participants in SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine group significantly (p = 0.044) improved their time for the 50-m casualty carry and increased their performance (p = 0.022) in the SST, a 2-min serial subtraction test (SST) to assess cognitive function under stressful conditions, compared to PL. A significant elevation (p = 0.048) in muscle carnosine content was noted in SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine group compared to PL. Changes in muscle carnosine content was correlated to changes in fatigue rate (r = 0.633, p = 0.06). 1

research-circle-new-4

β-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals

Healthy adults (average age = 60.5 ± 8.6 yrs, weight = 81.5 ± 12.6 kg) were randomized and given either 2.4 g/d of β-alanine (BA) or Placebo (PL) for 28 days. Working capacity was tested via bouts on a cycle ergometer at 70% VO 2 peak. Executive function was measured by Stroop Tests 5 min before exercise (T1), immediately before exercise (T2), immediately following fatigue (T3), and 5 min after fatigue (T4). Beta-alanine increases working capacity and eliminates endurance exercise induced declines in executive function seen after recovery in middle aged individuals. 2

research-placeholder8-circle

β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers.

SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine group had a significantly greater (p = 0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2 ± 1.0) than PL (6.5 ± 2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p = 0.039). Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. 3

research-placeholder1-45circle-2

Effects of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Mood, and Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in Recreationally-Active Males Before Simulated Military Operational Stress.

High-dose, short-duration SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine supplementation,14 days of SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine may mitigate the onset of negative mood states in healthy, recreationally-active males prior to a simulated military operation assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. 4

research-circle-new-5

Anserine and carnosine supplementation in the elderly: Effects on cognitive functioning and physical capacity

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of dietary carnosine and anserine on cognitive functioning and physical activity of the elderly. The cognitive function, physical capacity, body measurements, blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed. Carnosine combined with anserine supplementation brings promising effects on cognitive functioning and physical capacity of participants. 5

research-circle-new-6

Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation Preserves Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Brain of Elderly People Carrying APOE e4

Data was collected from 68 participants aged 65 years or older who received anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) or placebo for 12 months. Subjects were assessed at the start and end of the trial using several neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Memory Scale–Logical Memory (WMS–LM). Two types of MRI data was collected, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at the start and end of the trial. The study of healthy older adults from 60 to 80 years of age showed that carnosine with anserine supplement benefits in verbal memory. 6

research-circle-new-7

Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40–78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. Resting state functional connectivity was reviewed with the FSL fMRI analysis package. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. 7

research-circle-new-8

Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Elevation and Physiological Performance

This review study concluded that recent evidence suggests elevated carnosine levels created by beta-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine’s potential role as an antioxidant. This review addresses these new findings including recent investigations examining SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to post-traumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury. This review also focuses on the physiology of carnosine, the effect of beta-alanine ingestion on carnosine elevations, and the potential ergogenic benefits. 8

Healthy Immunity Support

research-placeholder3-circle

Effect of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Circulating IL-10 Concentrations During Intense Military Training.

Magnitude-based inferences that were used to provide inferences on the true effect SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine (BA) may have had on IL-10 concentrations compared with PL, calculated from 90% confidence intervals. Data analysis indicated that changes in circulating IL-10 concentrations (mean difference 0.86 pg·ml) were possibly greater (57%) for BA than PL. Results of this study suggest that 1 week of high-dose SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine ingestion may enhance the anti-inflammatory response during intense military training, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of BA during intense training. 9

Muscle Function

research-placeholder4-circle

Beta-alanine (SR CarnoSyn®) supplementation in elderly subjects (60–80 years): Effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity.

SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine supplementation is effective in increasing the muscle carnosine content in healthy elderly subjects, with subsequent improvement in their exercise capacity. Significant positive correlations were also shown between the relative change in the muscle carnosine content and the relative change in the time-to-exhaustion in the working capacity test. 10

491-circle

Comparison of sustained-release and rapid-release β-alanine formulations on changes in skeletal muscle carnosine and histidine content and isometric performance following a muscle-damaging protocol.

Results of this study demonstrated that only participants consuming the SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine formulation experienced a significant increase in muscle carnosine. Differences in the muscle carnosine response between these formulations may have practical significance for athletic populations in which small changes may have important implications on performance. 11

Bone Health
Support

492-circle

Oral nutritional supplement fortified with beta-alanine improves physical working capacity in older adults: A randomized, placebo-controlled study.

This study examined the effects of an oral nutritional supplement fortified with two different doses of beta-alanine on body composition, muscle function and physical capacity in older adults. Beta-alanine may improve physical working capacity, muscle quality and function in older men and women. These findings could have importance in the perception of frailty, and the maintenance of health and independent living in older adults. 12

research-placeholder2-circle-1

Improvement of periarticular osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis by beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc: a pilot study.

The beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc (AHZ) treatment increased serum zinc (AHZ vs cimetidine, +48.0% vs +5.6%), and resulted in significant increases of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (+93.5% vs -14.7%) and BMD of the bilateral ultradistal radius (+4.9% vs -5.6%). In the AHZ treatment, the percentage change in BMD of the unilateral ultradistal radius with more severe wrist pain was positively correlated with the percentage change in serum zinc (r = 0.97). These findings suggest for the first time that AHZ treatment improves periarticular osteoporosis, probably through an increase of bone formation, in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. 13

Brain Health

research-placeholder6-circle-1

β‑Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers.

Participants in SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine group significantly (p = 0.044) improved their time for the 50-m casualty carry and increased their performance (p = 0.022) in the SST, a 2-min serial subtraction test (SST) to assess cognitive function under stressful conditions, compared to PL. A significant elevation (p = 0.048) in muscle carnosine content was noted in SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine group compared to PL. Changes in muscle carnosine content was correlated to changes in fatigue rate (r = 0.633, p = 0.06). 1

β-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals

Healthy adults (average age = 60.5 ± 8.6 yrs, weight = 81.5 ± 12.6 kg) were randomized and given either 2.4 g/d of β-alanine (BA) or Placebo (PL) for 28 days. Working capacity was tested via bouts on a cycle ergometer at 70% VO 2 peak. Executive function was measured by Stroop Tests 5 min before exercise (T1), immediately before exercise (T2), immediately following fatigue (T3), and 5 min after fatigue (T4). Beta-alanine increases working capacity and eliminates endurance exercise induced declines in executive function seen after recovery in middle aged individuals. 2

research-circle-new-4
research-placeholder8-circle

β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers.

SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine group had a significantly greater (p = 0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2 ± 1.0) than PL (6.5 ± 2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p = 0.039). Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. 3

Effects of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Mood, and Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in Recreationally-Active Males Before Simulated Military Operational Stress.

High-dose, short-duration SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine supplementation,14 days of SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine may mitigate the onset of negative mood states in healthy, recreationally-active males prior to a simulated military operation assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. 4

research-placeholder1-45circle-2
research-circle-new-5

Anserine and carnosine supplementation in the elderly: Effects on cognitive functioning and physical capacity

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of dietary carnosine and anserine on cognitive functioning and physical activity of the elderly. The cognitive function, physical capacity, body measurements, blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed. Carnosine combined with anserine supplementation brings promising effects on cognitive functioning and physical capacity of participants. 5

Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation Preserves Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Brain of Elderly People Carrying APOE e4

Data was collected from 68 participants aged 65 years or older who received anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) or placebo for 12 months. Subjects were assessed at the start and end of the trial using several neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Memory Scale–Logical Memory (WMS–LM). Two types of MRI data was collected, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at the start and end of the trial. The study of healthy older adults from 60 to 80 years of age showed that carnosine with anserine supplement benefits in verbal memory. 6

research-circle-new-6
research-circle-new-7

Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults

Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40–78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. Resting state functional connectivity was reviewed with the FSL fMRI analysis package. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. 7

Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Elevation and Physiological Performance

This review study concluded that recent evidence suggests elevated carnosine levels created by beta-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine’s potential role as an antioxidant. This review addresses these new findings including recent investigations examining SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to post-traumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury. This review also focuses on the physiology of carnosine, the effect of beta-alanine ingestion on carnosine elevations, and the potential ergogenic benefits. 8

research-circle-new-8

Healthy Immunity Support

research-placeholder3-circle

Effect of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Circulating IL-10 Concentrations During Intense Military Training.

Magnitude-based inferences that were used to provide inferences on the true effect SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine (BA) may have had on IL-10 concentrations compared with PL, calculated from 90% confidence intervals. Data analysis indicated that changes in circulating IL-10 concentrations (mean difference 0.86 pg·ml) were possibly greater (57%) for BA than PL. Results of this study suggest that 1 week of high-dose SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine ingestion may enhance the anti-inflammatory response during intense military training, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of BA during intense training. 9

Muscle Function

Beta-alanine (SR CarnoSyn®) supplementation in elderly subjects (60–80 years): Effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity.

SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine supplementation is effective in increasing the muscle carnosine content in healthy elderly subjects, with subsequent improvement in their exercise capacity. Significant positive correlations were also shown between the relative change in the muscle carnosine content and the relative change in the time-to-exhaustion in the working capacity test. 10

research-placeholder4-circle
491-circle

Comparison of sustained-release and rapid-release β-alanine formulations on changes in skeletal muscle carnosine and histidine content and isometric performance following a muscle-damaging protocol.

Results of this study demonstrated that only participants consuming the SR CarnoSyn® beta-alanine formulation experienced a significant increase in muscle carnosine. Differences in the muscle carnosine response between these formulations may have practical significance for athletic populations in which small changes may have important implications on performance. 11

Bone Health Support

Oral nutritional supplement fortified with beta-alanine improves physical working capacity in older adults: A randomized, placebo-controlled study.

This study examined the effects of an oral nutritional supplement fortified with two different doses of beta-alanine on body composition, muscle function and physical capacity in older adults. Beta-alanine may improve physical working capacity, muscle quality and function in older men and women. These findings could have importance in the perception of frailty, and the maintenance of health and independent living in older adults. 12

492-circle
research-placeholder2-circle-1

Improvement of periarticular osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis by beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc: a pilot study.

The beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc (AHZ) treatment increased serum zinc (AHZ vs cimetidine, +48.0% vs +5.6%), and resulted in significant increases of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (+93.5% vs -14.7%) and BMD of the bilateral ultradistal radius (+4.9% vs -5.6%). In the AHZ treatment, the percentage change in BMD of the unilateral ultradistal radius with more severe wrist pain was positively correlated with the percentage change in serum zinc (r = 0.97). These findings suggest for the first time that AHZ treatment improves periarticular osteoporosis, probably through an increase of bone formation, in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. 13

Think Clearly, Live Well. Perfect Synergy®

References:

References:

    1. Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, Hoffman MW, Shavit N, Rosen P, Moran DS, Fukuda DH, Shelef I, Carmom E, Ostfeld I. β-Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers. Amino Acids. 2015 Mar;47(3):627-36. Doi: 10.1007/s00726-014-1896-7. Epub 2014 Dec 16. PMID: 25510839; PMCID: PMC4326648.
    2. Furst T, Massaro A, Miller C, Williams BT, LaMacchia ZM, Horvath PJ. β-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Jul 11;15(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0238-7. PMID: 29996843; PMCID: PMC6042354.
    3. Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, Dabora M, Moran DS, Sharvit N, Hoffman MW, Ben Moshe Y, McCormack WP, Hirschhorn G, Ostfeld I. β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Apr 10;11(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-11-15. PMID: 24716994; PMCID: PMC3983672.
    4. Varanoske AN, Wells AJ, Boffey D, Harat I, Frosti CL, Kozlowski GJ, Gepner Y, Hoffman JR. Effects of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Mood, and Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in Recreationally-Active Males Before Simulated Military Operational Stress. J Diet Suppl. 2020 Mar 6:1-22. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2020.1733730. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32138563.
    5. Szcześniak D, Budzeń S, Kopeć W, Rymaszewska J. Anserine and carnosine supplementation in the elderly: Effects on cognitive functioning and physical capacity. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014 Sep- Oct;59(2):485-90. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2014.04.008. Epub 2014 May 2. PMID: 24880197.
    6. Ding Q, Tanigawa K, Kaneko J, Totsuka M, Katakura Y, Imabayashi E, Matsuda H, Hisatsune T. Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation Preserves Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Brain of Elderly People Carrying APOE e4. Aging Dis. 2018 Jun 1;9(3):334-345. doi: 10.14336/AD.2017.0809. eCollection 2018 Jun. PMID: 29896423.
    7. Rokicki J, Li L, Imabayashi E, Kaneko J, Hisatsune T, Matsuda H. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Nov 27;7:219. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00219. PMID: 26640437; PMCID: PMC4661275.
    8. Hoffman JR, Varanoske A, Stout JR. Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Elevation and Physiological Performance. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2018;84:183-206. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.12.003. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PMID: 29555069.
    9. Hoffman, JR, Gepner, Y, Hoffman, M, Zelicha, H, Shapira, S, and Ostfeld, I. Effect of high dose, short-duration β-alanine supplementation on circulating IL-10 concentrations during intense military training. J Strength Cond Res 2018, 32(10): 2978-2981.
    10. del Favero S, Roschel H, Solis MY, et al. Beta-alanine (SR CarnoSyn®) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity. Amino Acids. 2012;43(1):49‐56. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1190-x.
    11. Varanoske AN, Hoffman JR, Church DD, Coker NA, Baker KM, Dodd SJ, Harris RC, Oliveira LP, Dawson VL, Wang R, Fukuda DH, Stout JR. Comparison of sustained-release and rapid-release β-alanine formulations on changes in skeletal muscle carnosine and histidine content and isometric performance following a muscle-damaging protocol. Amino Acids. 2019 Jan;51(1):49-60. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2609-4. Epub 2018 Jul 12. PMID: 30003336.
    12. McCormack WP, Stout JR, Emerson NS, Scanlon TC, Warren AM, Wells AJ, Gonzalez AM, Mangine GT. Robinson IV EH, Fragala MS, and Hoffman JR. Oral Nutritional Supplement Fortified with Beta-Alanine Improves Physical Working Capacity in Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study. Experimental Gerontology. 48:933-939, 2013.
    13. Sugiyama T, Tanaka H, Kawai S. Improvement of periarticular osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis by beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc: a pilot study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2000;18(6):335–338. doi:10.1007/s007740070005.
    1. Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, Hoffman MW, Shavit N, Rosen P, Moran DS, Fukuda DH, Shelef I, Carmom E, Ostfeld I. β-Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers. Amino Acids. 2015 Mar;47(3):627-36. Doi: 10.1007/s00726-014-1896-7. Epub 2014 Dec 16. PMID: 25510839; PMCID: PMC4326648.
    2. Furst T, Massaro A, Miller C, Williams BT, LaMacchia ZM, Horvath PJ. β-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Jul 11;15(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0238-7. PMID: 29996843; PMCID: PMC6042354.
    3. Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, Dabora M, Moran DS, Sharvit N, Hoffman MW, Ben Moshe Y, McCormack WP, Hirschhorn G, Ostfeld I. β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Apr 10;11(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-11-15. PMID: 24716994; PMCID: PMC3983672.
    4. Varanoske AN, Wells AJ, Boffey D, Harat I, Frosti CL, Kozlowski GJ, Gepner Y, Hoffman JR. Effects of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Mood, and Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in Recreationally-Active Males Before Simulated Military Operational Stress. J Diet Suppl. 2020 Mar 6:1-22. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2020.1733730. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32138563.
    5. Szcześniak D, Budzeń S, Kopeć W, Rymaszewska J. Anserine and carnosine supplementation in the elderly: Effects on cognitive functioning and physical capacity. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014 Sep- Oct;59(2):485-90. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2014.04.008. Epub 2014 May 2. PMID: 24880197.
    6. Ding Q, Tanigawa K, Kaneko J, Totsuka M, Katakura Y, Imabayashi E, Matsuda H, Hisatsune T. Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation Preserves Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Brain of Elderly People Carrying APOE e4. Aging Dis. 2018 Jun 1;9(3):334-345. doi: 10.14336/AD.2017.0809. eCollection 2018 Jun. PMID: 29896423.
    7. Rokicki J, Li L, Imabayashi E, Kaneko J, Hisatsune T, Matsuda H. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Nov 27;7:219. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00219. PMID: 26640437; PMCID: PMC4661275.
    8. Hoffman JR, Varanoske A, Stout JR. Effects of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Elevation and Physiological Performance. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2018;84:183-206. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.12.003. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PMID: 29555069.
    9. Hoffman, JR, Gepner, Y, Hoffman, M, Zelicha, H, Shapira, S, and Ostfeld, I. Effect of high dose, short-duration β-alanine supplementation on circulating IL-10 concentrations during intense military training. J Strength Cond Res 2018, 32(10): 2978-2981.
    10. del Favero S, Roschel H, Solis MY, et al. Beta-alanine (SR CarnoSyn®) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity. Amino Acids. 2012;43(1):49‐56. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1190-x.
    11. Varanoske AN, Hoffman JR, Church DD, Coker NA, Baker KM, Dodd SJ, Harris RC, Oliveira LP, Dawson VL, Wang R, Fukuda DH, Stout JR. Comparison of sustained-release and rapid-release β-alanine formulations on changes in skeletal muscle carnosine and histidine content and isometric performance following a muscle-damaging protocol. Amino Acids. 2019 Jan;51(1):49-60. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2609-4. Epub 2018 Jul 12. PMID: 30003336.
    12. McCormack WP, Stout JR, Emerson NS, Scanlon TC, Warren AM, Wells AJ, Gonzalez AM, Mangine GT. Robinson IV EH, Fragala MS, and Hoffman JR. Oral Nutritional Supplement Fortified with Beta-Alanine Improves Physical Working Capacity in Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study. Experimental Gerontology. 48:933-939, 2013.
    13. Sugiyama T, Tanaka H, Kawai S. Improvement of periarticular osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis by beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc: a pilot study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2000;18(6):335–338. doi:10.1007/s007740070005.